The war grew ever more muddled with the Dutch-Spanish war folded in as well. The United Netherlands was recognized as an independent republic. The war ended with a series of treaties collectively called as “Treaty of Westphalia” (1648). Two Roman Catholic armies, the emperor’s and the League’s, converged on the kingdom, routing Frederick at the White Mountain in November 1620 and replacing the regime of the estates in Bohemia…, In 1620, following the defeat of Frederick V (the elector palatine, or prince, from the Rhineland who had accepted the crown of Bohemia when it was offered to him in 1618) and the Bohemians, Spanish troops from the Netherlands entered the “Winter…. See more. Under the December 1625 Treaty of The Hague, the Dutch and English now agreed to finance Danish intervention in the Empire. And it was this upheaval – not military conflict per se – that took the heaviest human toll. Attempts to negotiate a peaceful solution failed as the conflict in Germany became part of the wider struggle between France and their Habsburg rivals in Spain and Austria. [93], This was accompanied by a struggle for control in the East Indies and Africa, increasing Portuguese resentment against the Spanish, who were perceived as prioritising their own colonies. Although the struggles that created it erupted some years earlier, the war is conventionally held to have begun in 1618, when the future Holy Roman emperor Ferdinand II, in his role as king of Bohemia, attempted to impose Roman Catholic absolutism on his domains, and the Protestant nobles of both Bohemia and Austria rose up in rebellion. 1 The Prague Defenestration 2 The Battle of White Mountain 3 The Danish War 4 The Swedish War 5 The Franco-Swedish Phase This war's roots go back to the Reformation and the spread of … Torstensson expelled the Danes from Bremen-Verden and occupied Jutland; after a decisive naval defeat at Fehmarn in October 1644, the Danes sued for peace. The Thirty Years War is the series of conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire and its surroundings, between 1618 and 1648. In late August, Gustavus incurred heavy losses in an unsuccessful assault on the town, arguably the greatest blunder in his German campaign. Appointed to rule the Duchy of Styria in 1595, within eighteen months he eliminated Protestantism in what was previously a stronghold of the Reformation. [68] In these battles, Gustavus used, among other things, the well-trained Finnish light cavalrymen Hakkapeliitta, which were excelled in sudden and savage attacks, raiding and reconnaissance. Eventually, more than 200 states, great and small, participated in the Thirty Years’ War. WHERE? Denmark was a Lutheran/Protestant country at the time of the 30 Years' War. The war grew ever more muddled with the Dutch-Spanish war folded in as well. [97], Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. [29], The Jesuit educated Ferdinand once claimed he would rather see his lands destroyed than tolerate heresy for a single day. Thirty Years War WHEN? For the outbreak of the war the deepening crisis of the Holy Roman Empire was of crucial importance. Each member was represented in the Imperial Diet; prior to 1663, this assembled on an irregular basis, and was primarily a forum for discussion, rather than legislation. This year marks the centenary of the end of the First World War, but that’s not the only major commemoration on our current calendars. In this strategy game, players will take control of one of the opposing sides, Protestants or Catholics, and fight for the control of the Empire. Frederick fled Bohemia and the revolt collapsed. [87], French policy was to seek to disrupt this road wherever possible, either by attacking the Spanish-held Duchy of Milan, or by blocking the Alpine passes. The Thirty Years’ War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. There were wide regional variations; in the Duchy of Württemberg, the number of inhabitants fell by nearly 60%. [24], One outcome was the formation of the Protestant Union, led by Frederick IV and largely composed of states in Southern Germany, to which Maximilian responded by setting up the Catholic League in July 1609. Despite the parties agreeing on the Peace of Prague in 1635, fighting continued with Sweden and France on one side, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs on the other. Twentieth-century wars such as World Wars I and II, by contrast, were fought overseas; few Americans on the homefront saw any type of direct engagement during these. [39] Many Protestants supported Ferdinand because they objected to deposing the legally elected king of Bohemia, and now opposed Frederick's removal on the same grounds. Prompted by France, the rebels proclaimed the Catalan Republic in January 1641. Poland, having been drawn in as a Baltic power coveted by Sweden, pushed its own ambitions by attacking Russia and establishing a dictatorship in Moscow under Władysław, Poland’s future king. [44] However, Spanish and Dutch involvement in the campaign was a significant step in internationalising the war, while Frederick's removal meant other Protestant princes began discussing armed resistance to preserve their own rights and territories. It entered the war against the emperor and against Spain on the side of Protestant allies. The chief agents of the Counter-Reformation were similarly split, the Jesuits generally backing Austria, the Capuchins France. The conflict lasted, unceasing, for 30 years, making it the longest continuous war in modern history. Thirty Years War is a new game designed by developer HQ covering one of the darkest ages of European history. The income from their imperial possessions remained in Germany and did not benefit the kingdom of Sweden; although they retained Swedish Pomerania until 1815, much of it was ceded to Prussia in 1679 and 1720. Their attribution by some to supernatural causes led to a series of Witch-hunts, beginning in Franconia in 1626 and quickly spreading to other parts of Germany, which were often exploited for political purposes. There was little serious fighting after France took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border in the Pyrenees. by Stephen Turnbull | Jan 24, 2020. This made it easier to levy national armies of significant size, loyal to their state and its leader; one lesson learned from Wallenstein and the Swedish invasion was the need for their own permanent armies, and Germany as a whole became a far more militarised society. [89], Between 1629 and 1631, plague exacerbated by troop movements killed 60,000 in Milan and 46,000 in Venice, with proportionate losses elsewhere. This period, known as the Thirty Years’ War, began with a religious dispute. For example, many of the earliest American wars were fought on American soil. The conflict can be split into two main parts. The Peace of Westphalia, which brought the brutalities of the Thirty Years’ War to an end in 1648, still looms large as a major turning point in the history of both international law and international politics. This new assault on 'German liberties' ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success. Gustavus signed an alliance with Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, securing his interests in Pomerania against the Catholic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, another Baltic competitor linked to Ferdinand by family and religion. Many Spanish officials felt it was time to accept Dutch independence, but despite these challenges, their Empire remained a formidable power. [110], The modern consensus is the population of the Holy Roman Empire declined from 18 to 20 million in 1600 to 11–13 million in 1650, and did not reach pre-war levels until 1750. [49], In the June 1624 Treaty of Compiègne, France subsidised the Dutch war against Spain for a minimum of three years. Thirty Years' War is a game designed by HQ and it covers one of the darkest ages of European history. The Peace consisted of three separate agreements; the Peace of Münster between Spain and the Dutch Republic, the treaty of Osnabrück between the Empire and Sweden, plus the treaty of Münster between the Empire and France. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Frederick's son Charles Louis regained the Lower Palatinate and became the eighth Imperial elector, although Bavaria kept the Upper Palatinate and its electoral vote. The Thirty Years' War lasted from 1618 to 1648 in Europe, and was one of the most destructive wars in European history, claiming around eight million lives in total.In some places half the pre-war population died and the war thoroughly influenced the Baroque Era which had prevalent themes of "vanitas" or the ultimate death and decay of all earthly things. Ferdinand won after a five-year struggle. There are four scenarios provided: the Full Campaign (14 turns), Early War (5 turns), Intervention (3 turns), and Apocalypse (5 turns). In May 1625, the Lower Saxony kreis elected Christian their military commander, although not without resistance; Saxony and Brandenburg viewed Denmark and Sweden as competitors, and wanted to avoid either becoming involved in the Empire. The Thirty Years’ War was a major European war that occurred during the 17th century. [83] As with Rocroi, Condé was unable to fully exploit this success and his losses shocked the French court. The Thirty Years’ War had a profound impact on Europe, and some of the consequences of this war can be seen in the changes that were made to European society. [73], After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. While less than 2% of the total French state budget, it made up over 25% of the Swedish, and allowed Gustavus to support an army of 36,000. In 1651, Spain recaptured Barcelona, ending the revolt. Effects From South Ossetia War Linger 30 Years Later ... most notably in 2008 when a Georgian attempt to retake the region sparked an all-out war … This severed the Spanish Road, forcing Spain to resupply their armies in Flanders by sea, an area dominated by the Dutch navy. Its major belligerents included France, Sweden, Austria, Denmark, and numerous princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Christian IV of Denmark was also Duke of Holstein, and it was in this capacity he joined the war in 1625. They ranged in size and importance from the seven Prince-electors who voted for the Holy Roman Emperor, down to Prince-bishoprics and City-states, such as Hamburg. The heavy reliance on mercenary forces also had a detrimental effect on the quality of soldiers in general, as mercenary captains would fill out their rosters by levying troops from the civilian population. 4.6 out of 5 stars 29. Disputes within the Empire drew in outside powers, many of whom held Imperial territories, including the Dutch Prince of Orange, hereditary ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg. [91], Throughout the 1630s, attempts to increase taxes to pay for the costs of the war in the Netherlands led to protests throughout Spanish territories; in 1640, these erupted into open revolts in Portugal and Catalonia, supported by Richelieu as part of his 'war by diversion'. France was now the chief Western power. The 1555 Peace of Augsburg was intended to end conflict between German Protestants and Catholics by establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. With the exception of England's short cameo, pretty much everyone had a prominent role to play RELEASED? Ambrosio Spinola, commander in the Spanish Netherlands, was preparing to restart hostilities, which required securing the Spanish Road. In May, a combined Franco-Swedish army destroyed the last major Imperial army at Zusmarshausen, while a second Swedish force besieged Prague. [100], The Peace was later denounced by Pope Innocent X, who regarded the bishoprics ceded to France and Brandenburg as property of the Catholic church, and thus his to assign. Most of the fighting took place in the Holy Roman Empire, although the war grew to include European powers outside of the Empire.What began as a local, religious conflict became more and more continental and political with each expanding phase of the war. It was a conflict between the Protestants and the Catholics in … While it is not a comprehensive list of all skirmishes, conflicts, or battles that took place in the Thirty Years' War, we have tried to include as many military events and actions as possible. The main character crisscrosses Europe at war in his role as messenger; he witnesses the 1634 battle of Nordlingen, among other events. In 1625 King Christian IV of Denmark saw an opportunity to gain valuable territory in Germany to balance his earlier loss of Baltic provinces to Sweden. It was one of the longest and most destructive conflicts in European history, and one of the longest continuous wars in modern history.. Available instantly. He did so with support from the Catholic League, despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish. [70] Two months later, the Swedes won a resounding victory at Lützen, where Gustavus was killed. In addition, Christians residing in states where they were a minority, such as Catholics living under a Lutheran ruler, were guaranteed freedom of worship and equality before the law. The situation was complicated by Savoy, which saw an opportunity to gain territory; in March 1629, the French stormed Savoyard positions in the Pas de Suse, lifted the siege of Casale and captured the strategic fortress of Pinerolo. [25] Some historians who view the war primarily as an international conflict argue this marks the beginning of the conflict, since Spain and Austria backed the Catholic candidate, France and the Dutch Republic the Protestant. Dutch leader Frederick Henry recaptured Breda in October, and three months later Bernhard of Saxe-Weimar destroyed an Imperial army at Rheinfelden. Almost four centuries on, the Thirty Years’ War teaches us how protracted conflict can … [52], Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. Backed by French subsidies, the Swedes and their German allies won a series of victories over Imperial forces, although Gustavus was killed in 1632. [16] Related conflicts include the Eighty Years War, the War of the Mantuan Succession, the Franco-Spanish War, and the Portuguese Restoration War. Estimates of total military and civilian deaths range from 4.5 to 8 million, mostly from disease or starvation. The Danes were comprehensively beaten at Lutter in August, and Mansfeld's army dissolved following his death in November. However, it was a compromise that failed to resolve underlying religious and political tensions within the Holy Roman Empire. The Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand first required the return of all property taken from the Catholic church since 1552, rather than leaving the courts to decide case by case as previously. [121], Elsewhere, persecution followed Imperial military success, expanding into Baden and the Palatinate following their reconquest by Tilly, then into the Rhineland. [18] In addition, rulers might share the same religion but have different economic and strategic objectives; for much of the war, the Papacy supported France against the Habsburgs. [74] In March 1636, France finally joined the Thirty Years War in alliance with Sweden, launching offensives in Germany and the Low Countries. See more. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. 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